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【考研英语】同源文详解205期:SAT新增“逆境分”,促进公平还是矫枉过正 ...[复制链接]
发表于 2020-5-21 03:58:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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原文期刊:华尔街日报
本文节选自《华尔街日报》2019年5月16日的一篇文章。本文从“富裕家庭作弊送孩子上名校”的社会丑闻出发,引出对其对立面——SAT招生测试“逆境分”这一举措确有矫枉过正之嫌的探讨,指出“逆境分”的设置只会使SAT招生考试的公开透明性大打折扣,表明了理性反对“逆境分”设置的立场。本文视频解析请见下期内容。


主要亮点:关注教育公平问题,切中社会痛点;‚结构层次清晰:借热点引话题(第一段)——客观分析对象优劣(第二、三、四段)——树靶打靶、逐一反驳(第五、六段)——总结全文,亮明立场(第七段)


Ⅰ News of affluent parents scamming to get their kids into top universities has again stoked complaints about college admissions. To level the socioeconomic field, the College Board now plans to assign students an “adversity score” on their SAT admissions tests. The score will include 15 variables such as a student’s neighborhood crime rate, housing values and poverty. These variables will feed into an algorithm with weights assigned to each variable. Out will pop a score that students won’t be able to see or challenge before it goes to colleges.


Ⅱ Some schools have been seeking ways to quantify student socioeconomic challenges, and the adversity score would be superior to the use of race. It could also help them compare similarly situated students. High-performing low- and middle-income students could likewise benefit from being compared to peers with similar means.

Ⅲ Yet the new score will make college admissions even less transparent. Notably, the variables that go into the score will be based on census and proprietary College Board data. So the scores won’t take into account individual circumstances and character, which is supposed to be the purpose of “holistic” admission assessments.

Ⅳ Middle-class kids whose parents sacrifice to send them to private schools or move to neighborhoods with better public schools would score as relatively privileged. Regardless of their own resources and opportunities, they might be compared to more affluent peers who have access to SAT prep and summer camps. The score could thus prompt families to make perverse decisions. For instance, parents may refrain from moving to marginally wealthier neighborhoods.

Ⅴ Perhaps the College Board is trying to avoid complaints that the SAT is biased against less privileged folks. White students on average score 133 points higher than Hispanics and 177 points higher than blacks. Students whose parents earn more than $200,000 score roughly 170 points higher than those from households with income between $40,000 and $60,000. But these are averages, and the SAT is still the best objective measure of student aptitude and has proven to be a good predictor of college performance. Test preparation can modestly boost scores, but plenty of affluent kids perform poorly and many less privileged students do well.  

Ⅵ Most colleges, especially the higher-ranked, already discount student privilege and handicap for race and socioeconomic status. In 2009 a Princeton sociologist studied 10 highly selective colleges and found that white applicants would have to score 310 points higher than blacks and 130 points higher than Hispanics to have the same odds of admission.

Ⅶ Schools should provide opportunity for kids of modest means or tough backgrounds, but those kids must still be able to succeed once they’re admitted. The adversity score looks like a way to undermine one of the last objective measures of academic merit. No wonder people are cynical about college admissions.


【重点词汇】1.scam [skæm] v. 诈骗
2.stoke [stəʊk] v. 煽动,激起
3.level the field 创造公平竞争环境
4.adversity [æd'vɜrsəti] n. 逆境
5.quantify ['kwɒntɪfaɪ] v. 量化
6.means [miːnz] n. 财富
7.census ['sensəs] n. 人口普查
8.proprietary [prə'praɪə.teri] a. 专有的
9.holistic [həʊ'lɪstɪk] adj. 全面的,整体的
10.prompt [prɑmpt] v. 促使
11.perverse [pərˈvərs] a. 悖谬的,有悖常理的
12.refrain from doing sth 克制自己不去做某事,避免做某事
13.marginally [ˈmɑrdʒɪn(ə)li] adv. 略微地
14.aptitude ['æptɪ.tjuːd] n. 能力
15.handicap ['hændi.kæp] n. 障碍
16.cynical ['sɪnɪk(ə)l] a. 愤世嫉俗的,怀疑的



【亮点表达】
1.affluent parents/family   富裕家长/家庭
2.stoke/provoke/arouse complaints about sth 极其关于……的不满
3.level the playing field  营造公平竞争的环境
4.college admissions 大学招生
5.college performance 学生在大学期间的表现
6.selective/top/leading colleges  名牌大学
7.make sth less/more transparent  使……更加/不透明
8.neighborhood with better public schools  好学区
9.make perverse decision  做出反常决定
10.be cynical about sth  对……不满



Part 2翻译及点评



Ⅰ News of affluent parents scamming to get their kids into top universities has again stoked complaints about college admissions. To level the socioeconomic field, the College Board now plans to assign students an “adversity score” on their SAT admissions tests. The score will include 15 variables such as a student’s neighborhood crime rate, housing values and poverty. These variables will feed into an algorithm with weights assigned to each variable. Out will pop a score that students won’t be able to see or challenge before it goes to colleges.


【翻译】:富有家长作弊将孩子塞进顶级大学的新闻又一次激起了人们对大学招生的不满。为了使社会经济背景不同的学生可以公平竞争,大学理事会如今计划在SAT招生测试上新增学生“逆境分”。该分数将包含社区犯罪率、房产价值、贫困水平等15个变量。这些变量会被输入一种算法,各自分配一定权重,最终生成一个分数。这个分数在被送到大学之前,学生无法看到也无法质疑。



【点评】: 借热点新闻引入新动向“SAT测试引入逆境分”,并简介何为逆境分。主要逻辑衔接:①段落整体News of...To...the College Board now plans to... an “adversity score” ...The score will...以“介绍背景——引出新动向——予以解释”的逻辑推进,重点在于“新动向”。②后三句The score will include 15 variables...These variables will feed into...Out will pop a score...环环相扣,承接介绍逆境分的生成方式。Out will pop a score倒装句式,突出分数的“算法自动生成”。


核心关键词:adversity score(逆境分)。






Ⅱ Some schools have been seeking ways to quantify student socioeconomic challenges, and the adversity score would be superior to the use of race. It could also help them compare similarly situated students. High-performing low- and middle-income students could likewise benefit from being compared to peers with similar means.


【翻译】:有些学校一直在寻求量化学生社会经济困难的方式,就此逆境分比使用种族要好些。逆境分还能帮助各学校比较处境相似的学生。表现优异的中低等收入家庭学生也会从“与家庭收入相似的同伴相较”中获益。


【点评】:2、3、4段分析逆境分优劣,重在其不足。本段先退而肯定逆境分好处:可在一定程度上帮助学校量化学生的社会经济困难,比较处境相似的学生;有益于条件差但表现优的学生。主要逻辑衔接:①首句quantify socioeconomic challenges呼应首段to level socioeconomic field,强调引入逆境分的目的。②段中三句以the adversity score would be superior…It could also help…could likewise benefit…形成并列,聚焦逆境分的“优点”,其中前两句针对“学校”,后一句针对“学生”。


核心关键词:quantify student socioeconomic challenges(量化学生所面临的社会经济挑战)。





Ⅲ Yet the new score will make college admissions even less transparent. Notably, the variables that go into the score will be based on census and proprietary College Board data. So the scores won’t take into account individual circumstances and character, which is supposed to be the purpose of “holistic” admission assessments.

【翻译】:然而,逆境分会使大学招生愈发不透明。特别是,逆境分所涉变量将会是基于人口普查和大学理事会自有数据。因此分数并不会将个人环境和性格考虑在内,而这本应是“全面的”招生评估的目的所在。
【点评】:转而指出逆境分不足:使招生愈发不透明。主要逻辑衔接:①段首yet引发转折,标志开启反驳;②段落形成“总-分”结构,先表明观点,后分析原因,其中Notably(“特别是,尤其是”)标志具体分析的开始,so体现分析中的因果逻辑:数据关注的是“群体情形”,因此分数并未考虑到“个体情况”(而大学招生本应是对个人进行全面的评估)。
核心关键词:even less transparent(愈发不透明)。


Ⅳ Middle-class kids whose parents sacrifice to send them to private schools or move to neighborhoods with better public schools would score as relatively privileged. Regardless of their own resources and opportunities, they might be compared to more affluent peers who have access to SAT prep and summer camps. The score could thus prompt families to make perverse decisions. For instance, parents may refrain from moving to marginally wealthier neighborhoods.

【翻译】:中等收入家庭的父母做出牺牲,将孩子送进私立学校或搬入更好的学区,他们的孩子却会因此被评分为“相对优越”。不管他们自身资源和机会如何,都可能会被拿来与那些更富有的、有条件参加SAT备考或夏令营的同伴相较。因此,逆境分可能会使家长做出反常决定。比如,家长可能会开始避免搬往稍富些的社区。
【点评】:进一步指出逆境分的负面性:对中等收入家庭孩子造成伤害(中产父母会为了让孩子读好学校努力搬入好的社区,却在申请中被当作优势群体,从而处于劣势),导致家长们做出反常行为(如避免搬入更好社区)。主要逻辑衔接:①段落整体以The score could thus体现“因(当前现实情形)——果(未来可能状况)”逻辑。②末句For instance引出具体例子,说明上句perverse decisions,凸显逆境分导致的不良后果。
核心关键词:middle-class kids(中等收入家庭孩子)Ⅴ Perhaps the College Board is trying to avoid complaints that the SAT is biased against less privileged folks. White students on average score 133 points higher than Hispanics and 177 points higher than blacks. Students whose parents earn more than $200,000 score roughly 170 points higher than those from households with income between $40,000 and $60,000. But these are averages, and the SAT is still the best objective measure of student aptitude and has proven to be a good predictor of college performance. Test preparation can modestly boost scores, but plenty of affluent kids perform poorly and many less privileged students do well.  


【翻译】:或许大学理事会是在努力规避“SAT不利于弱势群体”的抱怨。白人学生平均比西班牙裔高133分,比黑人学生高177分。父母年收入超20万美元的学生比那些家庭年收入在4到6万之间的孩子大致高出170分。但这些是平均分值,且SAT依然是衡量学生能力最客观的方式,已被证明能很好地预测大学表现。考前准备确实能略微提高分数,但(事实依然是)许多富家孩子表现不佳,很多弱势学生表现优异。


【点评】:5、6段反驳大学理事会的动机和作用。本段树靶并初步反驳:大学理事会可能是借此平息不满“SAT不利于弱势群体申请人”,但实际上SAT是衡量学生能力最客观的方法。主要逻辑衔接:①段落整体以Perhaps the College Board is… But...体现“树靶——打靶”的逻辑。②前两句为“论点-论据”关系,第二句以具体数据比较说明“种族”和“收入”与“SAT得分”有一定相关性,说明“SAT不利于弱势群体”这一论断的依据。②后三句以But开启反驳;these are averages初步反驳:这些是平均分(而对大学录取更有意义的是“个体分”);still the best objective measure…a good predictor…进一步高度肯定SAT的作用;Test preparation can..., but...先抑后扬,强调SAT分数并非明显青睐富孩子。


核心关键词:still the best objective measure(最客观的方式)。





Ⅵ Most colleges, especially the higher-ranked, already discount student privilege and handicap for race and socioeconomic status. In 2009 a Princeton sociologist studied 10 highly selective colleges and found that white applicants would have to score 310 points higher than blacks and 130 points higher than Hispanics to have the same odds of admission.


【翻译】:大多数大学,特别是排名靠前的大学,已经削减了种族及社会经济状况方面的特权或障碍对学生的影响。2009年,普林斯顿一位社会学家研究了十所名校,发现白人申请者需比黑人高310分、比西班牙裔高130分才能有同等的录取机会。


【点评】:继续反驳大学理事会的观点:许多大学录取时就已将家庭等因素考虑在内。主要逻辑衔接:①段落为“提出观点——数据论证”关系,already一词强调大学已为此做出努力(言外之意,引入逆境分已无必要);In 2009…以研究发现佐证这一论点,white applicants…blacks…Hispanics…呼应上文白人、黑人、西班牙裔的SAT得分情况,虽然白人申请者整体得分更高,但此处数据证明其录取门槛也更高(即:大学已经考虑了社会经济因素的影响)。


核心关键词:discount student privilege and handicap for race and socioeconomic status(削减种族及社会经济状况方面的特权或障碍对学生的影响)。




Ⅶ Schools should provide opportunity for kids of modest means or tough backgrounds, but those kids must still be able to succeed once they’re admitted. The adversity score looks like a way to undermine one of the last objective measures of academic merit. No wonder people are cynical about college admissions.


【翻译】:学校应该为收入较低或背景艰难的孩子提供机会,但这些孩子必须在被录取后仍有能力取得成功。逆境分似乎动摇了客观评价学术能力最后的方式之一。难怪人们对大学招生如此不满。


【点评】:总结全文,集中展现作者观点:学校应当为弱势群体提供机会,但也要确保录取的是有能力的学生;逆境分动摇了最客观的评价方式,引众怒并不奇怪。主要逻辑衔接:①首句以Schools should provide opportunity...but those kids must still...形成强转折,指出大学录取的必须是那些真正有能力的学生。②后两句以No wonder体现因果,总结作者的观点,表达了对逆境分的否定。


核心关键词:undermine one of the last objective measures of academic merit(动摇客观评价学术能力最后的方式之一)。





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